[38][39][40] After a period of disuse in the nineteenth century, when a more minimal page layout became popular with printers like Bodoni and Didot, the concept returned to popularity with the arrival of the Arts and Crafts movement, Many fine books from the period 1890-1960 have arabesque decorations, sometimes on paperback covers. Arabesque art consists of a series of repeating geometric forms which are occasionally accompanied by calligraphy. Did you know? the truss). Originating in the Middle East, they were introduced to continental Europe via Italy and Spain ... Italian examples of this ornament, which was often used for bookbindings and embroidery, are known from as early as the late fifteenth century. Typically, in earlier forms there is no attempt at realism; no particular species of plant is being imitated, and the forms are often botanically impossible or implausible. In other words, man can discover the geometric forms that constitute the arabesque, but these forms always existed before as part of God's creation, as shown in this picture. Peter Fuhring, a specialist in the history of ornament, says that (also in a French context): The ornament known as moresque in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (but now more commonly called arabesque) is characterized by bifurcated scrolls composed of branches forming interlaced foliage patterns. The students practiced their There is great similarity between arabesque artwork from very different geographic regions. The term was first used in Italian, where rabeschi was used in the 16th century as a term for " pilaster ornaments featuring acanthus decoration", [19] specifically "running scrolls" that ran vertically up a panel or pilaster, rather than horizontally along a frieze . Arabesque is a French term derived from the Italian word arabesco, meaning "in the Arabic style". The early Mshatta Facade is recognisably some sort of vine, with conventional leaves on the end of short stalks and bunches of grapes or berries, but later forms usually lack these. Eventually floral decoration mostly derived from Chinese styles, especially those of Chinese porcelain, replaces the arabesque in many types of work, such as pottery, textiles and miniatures. Arabesque definition, a sinuous, spiraling, undulating, or serpentine line or linear motif. The coming together of these three forms creates the Arabesque, and this is a reflection of unity arising from diversity; a basic tenet of Islam. SOME OF OUR CLIENTS. [32] Small motifs in this style have continued to be used by conservative book designers up to the present day. Flowers are rare until about 1500, after which they appear more often, especially in Ottoman art, and are often identifiable by species. Most but not all foliage decoration in the preceding cultures terminated at the edge of the occupied space, although infinitely repeatable patterns in foliage are very common in the modern world in wallpaper and textiles. In the process of development the plant forms became increasingly simplified and stylized. [14][15][16] R.A.D. the angle and the fixed/static shapes that it creates—esp. How to say Arabesque in French. In the first mode, each repeating geometric form has a built-in symbolism ascribed to it. "[17] To the adherents of Islam, the Arabesque is symbolic of their united faith and the way in which traditional Islamic cultures view the world. Over the following centuries the three terms grotesque, moresque and arabesque were used largely interchangeably in English, French and German for styles of decoration derived at least as much from the European past as the Islamic world, with "grotesque" gradually acquiring its main modern meaning, related more to Gothic gargoyles and caricature than to either Pompeii-style Roman painting or Islamic patterns. Translation for 'arabesque' in the free English-French dictionary and many other French translations. There are two modes to arabesque art. Geometric decoration often uses patterns that are made up of straight lines and regular angles that somewhat resemble curvilinear arabesque patterns; the extent to which these too are described as arabesque varies between different writers. The order and unity of the material world, they believe, is a mere ghostly approximation of the spiritual world, which for many Muslims is the place where the only true reality exists. Tabbaa's Chapter 4 gives an overview of these questions. arabesque - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. Learn more. These basic motifs gave rise to numerous variants, for example, where the branches, generally of a linear character, were turned into straps or bands. What does arabesque mean in French? Arabesque meaning in English: arabesque - meaning, Definition Synonyms at French to English dictionary gives you the best and accurate English translation and meanings of Arabesque, Meaning. bab.la - Online dictionaries, vocabulary, conjugation, grammar. Arabesque is a Girl name, meaning Ornate design, Ballet Pose in French origin. A second group, far smaller than the first, comprises modern ornaments: moresques, interlaced bands, strapwork, and elements such as cartouches...", categories he goes on to discuss individually.[31]. The arabesques and geometric patterns of Islamic art are often said to arise from the Islamic view of the world (see above). All our dictionaries are bidirectional, meaning that you can look up words in both languages at the same time. The past and current usage of the term in respect of European art can only be described as confused and inconsistent. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. In this field the technique of gold tooling had also arrived in the 15th century from the Islamic world, and indeed much of the leather itself was imported from there. Do you want to translate into other languages? In addition, upon inspection of the many examples of Arabesque art, some would argue that there is in fact a third mode, the mode of Islamic calligraphy. For example, demi-plie, means “half bend at the knees.” Demi is used less commonly for other terms like demi-arabesque, meaning “half arabesque,” or demi-tour, meaning “half-turn.” Learn more. Panel with horse heads, 11th century, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City), Ottoman tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent, with flowers and saz leaves, 1520, Iznik tile panel with flowers, 1550-1600, in the Louvre, Iznik tile, 1560, in the Museum of Islamic Art from Doha (Qatar), Giant arabesque pattern on the dome of the Sheikh Lotfallah Mosque from Isfahan (Iran), 17th century, "Rosette bearing the names and titles of shah Jahan", folio from the shah Jahan album, circa 1645, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. [13] In fact, the similarities are so pronounced that it is sometimes difficult for experts to tell where a given style of arabesque comes from. Arabesque is a French term derived from the Italian word arabesco, meaning "in the Arabic style". While the Kunstwollen has few followers today, his basic analysis of the development of forms has been confirmed and refined by the wider corpus of examples known today. describe the arabesque as a "vegetal design consisting of full...and half palmettes [as] an unending continuous pattern...in which each leaf grows out of the tip of another. [42], Design for a Cup for Jane Seymour, Hans Holbein the Younger and Workshop, 1536, with zones in both Islamic-derived arabesque or moresque style and classically derived acanthus volutes, Arabesque or moresque ornament print, by Peter Flötner (d. 1546), Arabesque or moresque borders in a print by Peter Flötner, Arabesque/moresque printers ornament, German, 17th century. Read more. Ces notes s'enchainent pour former une courbe mélodique ou arabesque. The French school considers the orientation: which leg is raised relative to the audience. Many arabesque patterns disappear at (or "under" as it often appears to a viewer) a framing edge without ending, and thus can be regarded as infinitely extendable outside the space they actually occupy; this was certainly a distinctive feature of the Islamic form, though not without precedent. [11] Jessica Rawson has recently extended the analysis to cover Chinese art, which Riegl did not cover, tracing many elements of Chinese decoration back to the same tradition; the shared background helping to make the assimilation of Chinese motifs into Persian art after the Mongol invasion harmonious and productive.[12]. English Translation of “arabesque” | The official Collins French-English Dictionary online. Jeté entrelacé lands in an arabesque position and is normally preceded by a chassé or a pas couru. Definition of arabesque in the Definitions.net dictionary. Find the complete details of Arabesque name on BabyNamesCube, the most trusted source for baby name meaning, numerology, origins, similar names and more! The second mode is based upon the flowing nature of plant forms. Palace facade from Mshatta in Jordan, now in the Pergamon Museum (Berlin), c. 740? [26] The reason for this is that the science and mathematics that are used to construct Arabesque artwork are universal. You can get more than one meaning for one word in Arabic. The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines,[1] often combined with other elements. This mode recalls the feminine nature of life giving. Translations in context of "arabesque" in English-French from Reverso Context: Made from soft and delicate arabesque lace, it espouses the contours of the face. What does arabesque mean? Marks, Richard and Williamson, Paul, eds. Mistakes in repetitions may be intentionally introduced as a show of humility by artists who believe only Allah can produce perfection, although this theory is disputed. The plants most often used are stylized versions of the acanthus, with its emphasis on leafy forms, and the vine, with an equal emphasis on twining stems. [30], Fuhring notes that grotesques were "confusingly called arabesques in eighteenth century France", but in his terminology "the major types of ornament that appear in French sixteenth century etchings and engraving... can be divided into two groups. His 1958 landmark painting Granadean Arabesque, a work on canvas big enough to be called a mural, features swipes and gobs of impasto and sand. Arabesque Translation Inc. is an international translation company based in Canada with a global reach. In Islam, the most important document to be transmitted orally is the Qur'an. It is characteristic of the moresque, which is essentially a surface ornament, that it is impossible to locate the pattern's beginning or end. [18] The term was first used in Italian, where rabeschi was used in the 16th century as a term for "pilaster ornaments featuring acanthus decoration",[19] specifically "running scrolls" that ran vertically up a panel or pilaster, rather than horizontally along a frieze. [6], The arabesque developed out of the long-established traditions of plant-based scroll ornament in the cultures taken over by the early Islamic conquests. Read more. Information and translations of arabesque in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Useful phrases translated from English into 28 languages. Contributions: 26 translations, 25 thanks received, 3 translation requests fulfilled for 3 members, left 31 comments Find more French words at wordhippo.com! Why not have a go at them together. At the popular level such theories often appear uninformed as to the wider context of the arabesque. "Leaf" forms typically spring sideways from the stem, in what is often called a "half-palmette" form, named after its distant and very different looking ancestor in ancient Egyptian and Greek ornament. [41] Many digital serif fonts include arabesque pattern elements thought to be complementary to the mood of the font; they are also often sold as separate designs. [20] How to use arabesque … Mosaics on the Treasury Dome of the Great Mosque of Damascus, 789, still in essentially Byzantine style. [10] Riegl traced formalistic continuity and development in decorative plant forms from ancient Egyptian art and other ancient Near Eastern civilizations through the classical world to the Islamic arabesque. Interlace and scroll decoration are terms used for most other types of similar patterns. Definition of arabesque. Rawson, the subject of her book, see Preface, and Chapter 5 on Chinese influences on Persian art. Or learning new words is more your thing? Discovered geometric forms, therefore, exemplify this perfect reality because God's creation has been obscured by the sins of man. Arabesque definition is - an ornament or style that employs flower, foliage, or fruit and sometimes animal and figural outlines to produce an intricate pattern of interlaced lines. Repeating geometric patterns worked well with traditional printing, since they could be printed from metal type like letters if the type was placed together; as the designs have no specific connection to the meaning of a text, the type can be reused in many different editions of different works. Have a look at our Arabic-English dictionary. The evolution of these forms into a distinctive Islamic type was complete by the 11th century, having begun in the 8th or 9th century in works like the Mshatta Facade. [24], Another related term is moresque, meaning "Moorish"; Randle Cotgrave's A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues of 1611 defines this as: "a rude or anticke painting, or carving, wherin the feet and tayles of beasts, &c, are intermingled with, or made to resemble, a kind of wild leaves, &c."[25] and "arabesque", in its earliest use cited in the OED (but as a French word), as "Rebeske work; a small and curious flourishing". According to Harold Osborne, in France, the "characteristic development of the French arabesque combined bandwork deriving from the moresque with decorative acanthus foliage radiating from C-scrolls connected by short bars". [4] In similar fashion, proposed connections between the arabesque and Arabic knowledge of geometry remains a subject of debate; not all art historians are persuaded that such knowledge had reached, or was needed by, those creating arabesque designs, although in certain cases there is evidence that such a connection did exist. English Translation. Cookies help us deliver our services. Meaning of arabesque. [37] The idea was rapidly used by many other printers. Due to this duality of creation, the artistic part of this equation may be further subdivided into both secular and religious artwork. As used in Moorish and Arabic decorative art (from which, almost exclusively, it was known in the Middle Ages), representations of living creatures were excluded; but in the arabesques of Raphael, founded on the ancient Græco-Roman work of this kind, and in those of Renaissance decoration, human and animal figures, both natural and grotesque, as well as vases, armour, and objects of art, are freely introduced; to this the term is now usually applied, the other being distinguished as Moorish Arabesque, or Moresque. [21], From there it spread to England, where Henry VIII owned, in an inventory of 1549, an agate cup with a "fote and Couer of siluer and guilt enbossed with Rebeske worke",[22] and William Herne or Heron, Serjeant Painter from 1572 to 1580, was paid for painting Elizabeth I's barge with "rebeske work". OED, printed and online editions (accessed March 2011), Stilfragen: Grundlegungen zu einer Geschichte der Ornamentik, Learn how and when to remove this template message, depiction of animals and people is generally discouraged, "Museum of Islamic Art, Berlin: Objects from Samarra", "Islamic Textile Art: Anomalies in Kilims", "Arabesque | Definition of Arabesque by Lexico", Islamic Art: Mirror of the Invisible World, Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arabesque&oldid=998536010, Articles needing additional references from September 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The moresque or arabesque style was especially popular and long-lived in the Western arts of the book: bookbindings decorated in gold tooling, borders for illustrations, and printer's ornaments for decorating empty spaces on the page. [19] Apparently starting in embroidery, it then appears in garden design before being used in Northern Mannerist painted decorative schemes "with a central medallion combined with acanthus and other forms" by Simon Vouet and then Charles Lebrun who used "scrolls of flat bandwork joined by horizontal bars and contrasting with ancanthus scrolls and palmette. [20] The book Opera nuova che insegna a le donne a cuscire … laqual e intitolata Esempio di raccammi (A New Work that Teaches Women how to Sew … Entitled "Samples of Embroidery"), published in Venice in 1530, includes "groppi moreschi e rabeschi", Moorish knots and arabesques. Easily find the right translation for Arabesque from English to French submitted and enhanced by our users. You have searched the English word "Arabesque" which meaning "الأرابيسك" in Arabic. An intricate or elaborate pattern or design: "the complex arabesque of a camera movement" (Nigel Andrews). [8], Though the broad outline of the process is generally agreed, there is a considerable diversity of views held by specialist scholars on detailed issues concerning the development, categorization and meaning of the arabesque. His most notable painting from 1958, called Granadean Arabesque, is a large scale yellow hued mural that features clusters of sand and impasto. arabesque translation in French - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'arabe',Arabie',arable',Arabie Séoudite', examples, definition, conjugation All Free. arabesque. Ettinghausen et al. The back leg can be in an attitude or in an arabesque position. Another definition is "Foliate ornament, used in the Islamic world, typically using leaves, derived from stylised half-palmettes, which were combined with spiralling stems". Translations of the word L'ARABESQUE from french to english and examples of the use of "L'ARABESQUE" in a sentence with their translations: ...brodée en 12 cm reprend l'arabesque … New stems spring from leaf-tips, a type often called honeysuckle, and the stems often have no tips, winding endlessly out of the space. arabesque French Discuss this arabesque English translation with the community: It is the direct translation of the french word and should always be a part of another term. [7] The relatively abundant survivals of stucco reliefs from the walls of palaces (but not mosques) in Abbasid Samarra, the Islamic capital between 836 and 892, provide examples of three styles, Styles A, B, and C, though more than one of these may appear on the same wall, and their chronological sequence is not certain. Over 100,000 English translations of French words and phrases. Translation of 'Arabesque' by Coldplay from English, French to English. Arabesque (French: ; literally, "in Arabic fashion") in dance, particularly ballet, is a body position in which a dancer stands on one leg–the supporting leg–with the other leg–the working leg–turned out and extended behind the body, with both legs held straight. The arabesque may be equally thought of as both art and science. Cambridge Dictionary +Plus The first recalls the principles that govern the order of the world. Proverbs and complete passages from the Qur'an can be seen today in Arabesque art. Made using delicate fishnet, it is embellished with the most elegant arabesque lace. Translations in context of "arabesque" in French-English from Reverso Context: Réalisé dans une dentelle arabesque souple et délicate, il épouse les contours du visage. The first includes ornaments adopted from antiquity: grotesques, architectural ornaments such as the orders, foliage scrolls and self-contained elements such as trophies, terms and vases. Copyright © IDM 2020, unless otherwise noted. arabesque (plural arabesques) (art, architecture, also attributively) An elaborate design of intertwined floral figures or complex geometrical patterns, mainly used in Islamic Art and architecture. Translation for 'arabesque' in the free French-English dictionary and many other English translations. Early Islamic art, for example in the famous 8th century mosaics of the Great Mosque of Damascus, often contained plant-scroll patterns, in that case by Byzantine artists in their usual style. Enfin en bas de la composition se trouve une arabesque. Finally down of the composition is found an arabesque. Claims are often made regarding the theological significance of the arabesque, and its origin in a specifically Islamic view of the world; however these are without support from written historical sources as, like most medieval cultures, the Islamic world has not left us documentation of their intentions in using the decorative motifs they did. arabesque definition: 1. a position in ballet in which the dancer stands on one leg with the other leg held out straight…. See more. French words for arabesque include arabesque and arabesqué. [3] Within the very wide range of Eurasian decorative art that includes motifs matching this basic definition, the term "arabesque" is used consistently as a technical term by art historians to describe only elements of the decoration found in two phases: Islamic art from about the 9th century onwards, and European decorative art from the Renaissance onwards. More meanings for arabesque. For example, the square, with its four equilateral sides, is symbolic of the equally important elements of nature: earth, air, fire and water. These principles include the bare basics of what makes objects structurally sound and, by extension, beautiful (i.e. Richard Ettinghausen, Oleg Grabar, and Marilyn Jenkins-Madina, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 20:51. All rights reserved. All of this will happen in the air. Meanwhile, the word "arabesque" was now being applied to Islamic art itself, by 1851 at the latest, when John Ruskin uses it in The Stones of Venice. The artwork is at the same time mathematically precise, aesthetically pleasing, and symbolic. quotations ▼ (music) An ornate composition, especially for the piano. Robert Granjon, a French printer of the sixteenth century, has been credited with the first truly interlocking arabesque printing, but other printers had used many other kinds of ornaments in the past. Also fig[uratively]. Herne payment quoted in. and Bournonville consider the positions of the arms; Cecchetti does, too, and adds variations for the supporting leg and the gaze. [9] The detailed study of Islamic arabesque forms was begun by Alois Riegl in his formalist study Stilfragen: Grundlegungen zu einer Geschichte der Ornamentik (Problems of style: foundations for a history of ornament) of 1893, who in the process developed his influential concept of the Kunstwollen. The depiction of animals and people is generally discouraged, which explains the preference for abstract geometric patterns. Jeté, grand [grahn zhuh-TAV] This term refers to a jeté in which the legs are thrown into the air at 90 degrees. Without any one of the four, the physical world, represented by a circle that inscribes the square, would collapse upon itself and cease to exist. [5] The case for a connection with Islamic mathematics is much stronger for the development of the geometric patterns with which arabesques are often combined in art. Translations of arabesque from English to French and index of arabesque in the bilingual analogic dictionary "[33] More exuberant arabesque designs by Jean Bérain the Elder are an early "intimation" of the Rococo, which was to take the arabesque into three dimensions in reliefs. [2] It usually consists of a single design which can be 'tiled' or seamlessly repeated as many times as desired. "rebeske" being a now disused version of "arabesque", see OED, "Rebesk". arabesque translation in English-French dictionary. "[36], Byzantine mosaics with arabesques on a ceiling from the Basilica of San Vitale (Ravenna, Italy), French arabesque garden planting at Vaux-le-Vicomte, in low box hedges on pink gravel, Arabesque plasterwork in the Church of Saint Maurice from Ebersmunster (Alsace, France), 1740s, French 18th century Neoclassical grotesque decor at Chateau de Fontainebleau; this would probably have been described as arabesque by its makers, Neoclassical double door, with Greek and Roman ornaments on it, by Pierre Rousseau, from the 1790s, in the Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, US), Neoclassical arabesques in the Tullgarn Palace from Sweden, Empire carpet, 1814–1830, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City), Renaissance Revival cast iron door window grill of a building on the Boulevard du Temple from Paris, Renaissance Revival cast iron door window grill of a building on Rue du Bac from Paris, Door with arabesques painted on it, in the Dimitrie Sturdza House from Bucharest (Romania), Arabesque with a mascaron and a cartouche, on a façade of an 1890s or 1900s city-house from Bucharest, Art Nouveau arabesque on a façade of a city-house from Bucharest, A major use of the arabesque style has been artistic printing, for example of book covers and page decoration. Fancy a game? Relating to, or exhibiting, the style of ornament called arabesque; as, arabesque frescoes. Some Western arabesques derive from Islamic art, but others are closely based on ancient Roman decorations. [26] In France "arabesque" first appears in 1546,[27] and "was first applied in the latter part of the 17th century" to grotesque ornament, "despite the classical origin of the latter", especially if without human figures in it - a distinction still often made, but not consistently observed,[28]. Instead of recalling something related to the 'True Reality' (the reality of the spiritual world), Islam considers calligraphy a visible expression of the highest art of all; the art of the spoken word (the transmittal of thoughts and of history). This page provides all possible translations of the word arabesque in the French language. The notes keep coming to make a melodic curve or "arabesque ". Therefore, for most Muslims, the best artwork that can be created by man for use in the Mosque is artwork that displays the underlying order and unity of nature. [23] Unfortunately the styles so described can only be guessed at, although the design by Hans Holbein for a covered cup for Jane Seymour in 1536 (see gallery) already has zones in both Islamic-derived arabesque/moresque style (see below) and classically derived acanthus volutes. Arabesque is also used as a term for complex freehand pen flourishes in drawing or other graphic media. The major training systems differentiate among arabesques in different ways. Drop Us a Line However, for many Muslims there is no distinction; all forms of art, the natural world, mathematics and science are seen to be creations of God and therefore reflections of the same thing: God's will expressed through his creation. Arabesques are a fundamental element of Islamic art but they develop what was already a long tradition by the coming of Islam. In the West they are essentially found in the decorative arts, but because of the generally non-figurative nature of Islamic art, arabesque decoration is there often a very prominent element in the most significant works, and plays a large part in the decoration of architecture. The Grove Dictionary of Art will have none of this confusion, and says flatly: "Over the centuries the word has been applied to a wide variety of winding and twining vegetal decoration in art and meandering themes in music, but it properly applies only to Islamic art",[35] so contradicting the definition of 1888 still found in the Oxford English Dictionary: "A species of mural or surface decoration in colour or low relief, composed in flowing lines of branches, leaves, and scroll-work fancifully intertwined. INTERPRETATION We are a service provider of legal and community interpreters in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. [34], The use of "arabesque" as an English noun first appears, in relation to painting, in William Beckford's novel Vathek in 1786. Everything you need to know about life in a foreign country. [29] Writers over the last decades have attempted to salvage meaningful distinctions between the words from the confused wreckage of historical sources. Arabesque Meaning in Arabic: Searching meanings in Arabic can be beneficial for understanding the context in an efficient manner. In Ottoman art the large and feathery leaves called saz became very popular, and were elaborated in drawings showing just one or more large leaves. Information and translations of arabesque in the French language or serpentine Line or linear motif relative the... A single design which can be in an arabesque position of this will happen in the Arabic style.. January 2021, at 20:51 of Nova Scotia, Canada this will happen in Pergamon. 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By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies translation for arabesque from,. '', see OED, `` Rebesk '' provider of legal and community interpreters in Pergamon... Of her book, see Preface, and symbolic be equally thought of as both art science. For complex freehand pen flourishes in drawing or other graphic media the other leg out... Great similarity between arabesque artwork are universal definition: 1. a position in ballet in which the dancer on. Line or linear motif of these questions above ) always be a part another! 5 January 2021, at 20:51 are often said to arise from the word! Pen flourishes in drawing or other graphic media French term derived from the Islamic view the... Usually consists of a single design which can be 'tiled ' or seamlessly repeated as many times as desired pour. Arabic: Searching meanings in Arabic can be 'tiled ' or seamlessly repeated many. Thought of as both art and science or exhibiting, the most elegant arabesque lace Paul, eds of. 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The reason for this is that the science and mathematics that are used construct! The second mode is based upon the flowing nature of life giving translation! These questions arabesque '' which meaning `` in the Arabic style '' arabesque definition a! Called arabesque ; as, arabesque frescoes, 789, still in essentially style! Simplified and stylized arabesque '' which meaning `` in the French language have attempted to salvage meaningful distinctions between words... Appear uninformed as to the audience and Williamson, Paul, eds 4... Being a now disused version of `` arabesque '' which meaning `` in the Pergamon Museum ( Berlin ) c.... Term derived from the Qur'an can be beneficial for understanding the context in an efficient.. To French submitted and enhanced by our users usage of the world ( see above ) that! '' which meaning `` in the Arabic style '' artwork from very different geographic.... 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